Jueves, 14 Abril 2016 01:48

Mejoran condiciones de vida para grupos étnicos pero falta igualdad de oportunidades

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Bogotá D.C, 13 de abril de 2016. Las condiciones de vida de los indígenas y afrodescendientes residentes en Bogotá registró mejoría durante el período 2011-2014, de acuerdo con el Índice Multidimensional de Pobreza -IMP-, el cual tiene en cuenta el contexto educativo, laboral, de salud, servicios públicos y la situación de la niñez y juventud.

Para los indígenas en el 2011, el IMP fue de 4.92% y disminuyó a 4.47% en el 2014. Para los afrodescendientes pasó de 4.25% en 2011 a 3.29% en el 2014.
 
Este dato quedó registrado en la publicación ‘Igualdad para un buen y mejor vivir: Indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos’, que hoy presenta la Secretaría Distrital de Planeación.
 
Asimismo, el Estudio muestra otros indicadores como el índice de Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas -NBI- y la pobreza monetaria, los cuales no fueron tan positivos para estos dos grupos.
 
Respecto al NBI, los afrodescendientes pasaron del 11.3% en el 2011 al 8.4% en el 2014; mientras que los indígenas mantienen alto este indicador, aumentó de 9.6% en 2011 a 10.0% en 2014.
 
En pobreza monetaria, los dos grupos tuvieron incremento. Los afrodescendientes entre el 2011 y 2014 pasaron del 16.7% al 21.9%, y los indígenas del 18.0% al 29.2%.
 
La publicación no sólo recopila la información cuantitativa de estas poblaciones, también presenta relatos contados por personas pertenecientes a tales grupos para tener un mejor panorama de sus condiciones de vida.
 
Es así como Claudino Pérez Torres, del Pueblo Huitoto-Murui contó que “soy del departamento de Amazonas, yo me vine por estudio y también por desplazamiento. Soy desplazado por la ignorancia, entonces me vine a preparar a la ciudad de Bogotá porque en la Amazonía en mi época de juventud no había donde estudiar”.
 
Dentro de las razones por las cuales estos grupos migran a Bogotá, el 49,9% de los afros planteó que es por trabajo u oportunidad de negocios así como el 16,0% de los indígenas, y por más oportunidades educativas el 12,1% y el 42,7%, respectivamente.
 
El hecho que muchas familias afrodescendientes e indígenas hayan llegado a Bogotá por desplazamiento forzado incide en que la mayoría esté en el Régimen Subsidiado, por ejemplo, todos los desplazados que participaron en los grupos focales cuentan con afiliación a Caprecom o han sido beneficiarios del Sisben.
 
“Gracias a Dios he tenido mi Sisben y me han atendido bien. Siempre desde que me sisbenicé estuve en Sol Salud hasta que se acabó; ahorita estamos en Capital Salud”, contó Bernardita Remui, de la comunidad Huitoto-Mui, Chorrera Amazonas.
 
En cuanto a educación, el grado de formación que la mayoría de las personas pertenecientes a estos grupos étnicos alcanzaron fue secundaria y esto lo atribuyen a la falta de dinero, a la necesidad de trabajar o porque se considera que ahí terminó su etapa escolar.
 
Este hallazgo de inasistencia escolar se corrobora con algunos testimonios, en los que fue recurrente el hecho de que los niños y jóvenes abandonan la escuela para trabajar, como lo cuenta Jenny Paola Quintero, afrodescendiente, “cuando no tenemos nada para la semana, los domingos me toca irme a comprar unas bolsas, y me voy con ellos a vender bolsas. Eso aquí no nos alcanza para que nuestros hijos, vayan a un colegio, a una universidad; no tenemos el recurso; no tenemos la ayuda suficiente ni del gobierno ni de nadie aquí en Bogotá”.
 
Estos son algunos de los hallazgos que recoge el libro, que para su realización contó con el apoyo de la Universidad del Valle. Las fuentes que se utilizaron fueron las Encuestas Multipropósito de Bogotá 2011 y 2014 y la Encuesta del Centro Nacional de Consultoría (CNC) aplicada a las minorías Raizal, Palenquera y Rom. El insumo cualitativo fue el análisis de 14 grupos focales y dos entrevistas.
 
Para conocer el libro descárguelo aquí

Read 44304 times Last modified on Jueves, 14 Abril 2016 02:11

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